Standard of Rottweilers (Files for downloads under
Rottweiler: F.C.I.-Standard Nr. 147 / 19.06.2000 / D
Date of publication of the valid original standard: 06.04.2000
Utilization: Companion, servic and working dog
Group 2 (Pinscher and Schnauzer type, Molossian
type and Swiss Mountain- and Cattle Dogs and other breeds)
Section 2.1 Molossian type, Mastiff type with working trial.
Brief historical summary
The Rottweiler is considered to be one of the oldest dog breeds.
Its origin goes back to Roman times. These dogs were kept as herder or
driving dogs. They marched over the Alps with the Roman legions,
protecting the humans and driving their cattle. In the region of Rottweil,
these dogs met and mixed with the native dogs in a natural crossing. The
main task of the Rottweiler now became the driving and guarding of the
herds of cattle and the defence of their masters and their property. This
breed acquired its name from the old free city of Rottweil and was known
as the "Rottweil butcher`s dog".
The butchers bred this type of dog purely for performance and usefulness.
In due course, a first rate watch and driving dog evolved which could also
be used as a draught dog. When, at the beginning of the twentieth century,
various breeds were needed for police service, the Rottweiler was amongst
those tested. It soon became evident that the breed was highly suitable
for the tasks set by police service and therefore they were officially
recognized as police dogs in 1910.
Rottweiler breeders aim at a dog of abundant strength, black coated with
clearly defined rich tan markings, whose powerful appearance does not lack
nobility and which is exceptionally well suited to being a companion,
service and working dog.
The Rottweiler is a medium to large size, stalwart dog, neither
heavy nor light and neither leggy nor weedy. His correctly proportioned,
compact and powerful build leads to the conclusion of great strength,
agility and endurance.
The length of the body, measured from the sternum (breast-bone) to the
ischiatic tuberosity, should not exceed the height at the withers by, at
most, 15 %.
Behaviour / Temperament
Good natured, placid in basic disposition and fond of children, very
devoted, obedient, biddable and eager to work. His appearance is natural
and rustic, his behaviour self assured, steady and fearless. He reacts to
his surroundings with great alertness.
Skull: Of medium length, broad between the ears. Forehead line moderately
arched as seen from the side. Occipital bone well developed without being
Stop: Well defined.
Nose: Nose well developed, more broad than round with relatively
large nostrils, always black.
Muzzle: The foreface should appear neither elongated nor shortened in
relation to the cranial region. Straight nasal bridge, broad at base,
Lips: Black, close fitting, corner of the mouth not visible, gum as dark
Jaws / Teeth: Upper and lower jaw strong and broad. Strong complete
dentition (42 teeth) with scissor bite, the upper incisors closely
overlapping the lower incisors.
Cheeks: Zygomatic arches pronounced.
Eyes: Of medium size, almond shaped, dark brown in colour. Eyelids close
Ears: Medium-sized, pendant, triangular, wide apart, set on high. With the
ears laid forward close to the head the skull appears to be broadened.
Neck: Strong, of fair length, well muscled, slightly arched, free from
throatiness, without dewlap.
Back: Straight, strong, firm.
Loins: Short, strong and deep.
Croup: Broad, of medium length, slightly rounded. Neither flat nor falling
Chest: Roomy, broad and deep (approximately 50 % of the shoulder height)
with well developed forechest and well sprung ribs.
Belly: Flanks not tucked up.
Tail: In natural condition, level in extension of the upper line; at ease
may be hanging
Forequarters: Seen from the front, the front legs are straight and
not placed too closely to each other. The forearm, seen from the side,
stands straight. The slope of the shoulder blade is about 45 degrees to
Shoulders: Well laid back.
Upper arm: Close fitting to the body.
Forearm: Strongly developed and muscular.
Pasterns: Slightly springy, strong, not steep.
Front feet: Round, tight and well arched; pads hard; nails short, black
Hindquarters: Seen from behind, legs straight and not too close together.
When standing free, obtuse angles are formed between the dog`s upper thigh
and the hip bone, the upper thigh and the lower thigh and the metatarsal.
Upper thigh: Moderately long, broad and strongly muscled.
Lower thigh: Long, strongly and broadly muscled at top, sinewy.
Hocks: Sturdy well angulated hocks; not steep.
Hindfeet: Slightly longer than the front feet. Toes strong, arched, as
tight as front feet.
The Rottweiler is a trotting dog. In movement the back remains firm and
relatively stable. Movement harmonious, steady, full of energy and
unrestricted, with good stride.
Skin on the head: Overall tight fitting. When the dog is alert, the
forehead may be slightly wrinkled.
Hair: The coat consists of a top coat and an undercoat. The top
coat is of medium length, coarse, dense and flat. The undercoat must not
show through the top coat. The hair is a little longer on the hindlegs.
Colour: Black with clearly defined markings of a rich tan on the cheeks,
muzzle, throat, chest and legs, as well as over both eyes and under the
base of the tail.
Size and weight
Heigtht at withers: For males is 61 - 68 cm.
61 - 62 cm is small / 63 - 64 cm is medium height / 65 - 66 cm is large -
correct height / 67 - 68 cm is very large
Weight: approximately 50 kg
Heigtht at withers:
For bitches is 56 - 63 cm.
56 - 57 cm is small / 58 - 59 cm is medium height / 60 - 61 cm is large -
correct height / 62 - 63 cm is very large
Weight: approximately 42 kg
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and
the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact
proportion to its degree.
General appearance: Light, weedy, leggy appearance. Light in bone and
Head: Hound-type head. Narrow, light, too short, long or coarse head. Flat
forehead (lack of stop or too little stop).
Foreface: Long or pointed muzzle; split nose; Roman nose (convex nasal
bridge) or dish-faced (concave nasal bridge); aquiline nose; pale or
spotted nose (butterfly nose).
Lips: Pendulous, pink or patchy; corner of lips visible.
Jaws: Narrow lower jaw.
Bite: Pincer bite.
Cheeks: Strongly protruding.
Eyes: Light, deep set. Also too full and round eyes; loose eye-lids.
Ears: Set on too low, heavy, long, slack or turned backwards. Also flying
ears or ears not carried symmetrically.
Neck: Too long, thin, lacking muscle. Showing dewlap or throaty.
Body: Too long, too short or too narrow.
Back: Too long, weak; sway-back or roach back.
Croup: Too sloping, too short, too flat or too long.
Chest: Flat ribbed or barrel shaped. Too narrow behind.
Tail: Set on too high or too low.
Forequarters: Narrow or crooked front legs. Steep shoulder placement.
Loose or out at elbow. Too long, too short or too straight in upper arm.
Weak or steep pastern. Splayed feet. Too flat or too arched toes. Deformed
toes. Light coloured nails.
Hindquarters: Flat thighs, hocks too close, cow hocks or barrel hocks.
Joints with too little or too much angulation. Dewclaws.
Skin: Wrinkles on head
Coat: Soft, too short or too long. Wavy coat; lack of undercoat.
Colour: Markings of incorrect colour, not clearly defined.. Markings which
are too spread out.
General: Distinct reversal of sexual type, i.e. feminine dogs or masculine
Teeth: Overshot or undershot bite, wry mouth; lack of one incisive tooth,
one canine, one premolar and one molar.
Eyes: Entropion, ectropion, yellow eyes, different coloured eyes.
Tail: Kink tail, ring tail, with strong lateral deviation
Hair: Definitely long or wavy coat.
Colour: Dogs which do not show the typical Rottweiler colouring of black
with tan markings. White markings.
Behaviour: Anxious, shy, cowardly, gun-shy, vicious, excessively
suspicious, nervous animals.
N.B.: Male animals must have two apparently normal testicles fully
descended into the scrotum.